Isaac Newton was an English scientist. He was born on 4 January 1643 in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, Lincolnshire, England. His father Isaac Newton Sr. was a common farmer in the village. His mother’s name was Hannah Ayscough. Newton researches many branches of science. Physics was one of the important topics of his research. He also researched mathematics, astronomy, Alchemy, theology, natural philosopher, and author. At this cause, he was more and more recognized and popular as a scientist. Here is short summary of Sir Isaac Newton’s biography.
- Name: Isaac Newton
- Birth: January 4, 1643
- Birth Place: Kensington, London, United Kingdom
- Education: Trinity College 1667-1668
- Died: 31 March 1727, Kensington, London, United Kingdom
In 1987 Newton published his first book “Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica“. In this book, Newton mentions three basic formulas of motion and the gravity formula. The formula of motion and the universal gravity formula are two of his best inventions. It keeps playing an important role in classical mechanics.
One of the most famous stories is that Newton was first inspired by the study of the formula of the universal gravity ball as he watched an apple fall from a tree. The apple actually hit Newton’s head and that’s why the wit of gravity played to his head.
In the year 1666, he retired again from Cambridge to his mother in Lincolnshire. One day, sitting in the garden, he was deeply worried. At such times the force of gravity (which brings an apple down from the tree to the ground) cannot be confined to a certain distance from the earth. This power, as is generally thought, must retain its strength for a considerable distance. In his own mind, he goes on to say, why this ball will not extend to the moon.
And in that case, it influences the motion of the moon and possibly places it in orbit. Based on this, he sat down to calculate what the outcome might be.
Newton formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that formed the dominant scientific viewpoint until it was superseded by the theory of relativity. Newton used his mathematical description of gravity to prove Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, the trajectories of comets, the precession of the equinoxes, and other phenomena, eradicating doubt about the Solar System’s heliocentricity.
Newton also made a huge contribution to mathematics. Newton and Leibniz jointly developed a new branch of mathematics called calculus. Newton makes the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a sophisticated theory of color based on the observation that a prism separates white light into the colors of the visible spectrum.
His father died six months before Newton was born. As a result, after 5 years his mother got married and started a family. During this time he lived with his grandmother. Then his mother returned to Woolsthorpe to drop him off from school. Yet his studies did not stop. Newton attended Trinity College, Cambridge, following his uncle’s advice.
From there he passed matriculation in 1661. There he worked as a servant in various places of the college to pay for his education. He originally studied mathematics and Mechanics. He set down in his notebook a series of “Quaestiones” about mechanical philosophy as he found it.
In 1665, he discovered the generalized binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became calculus.
In 1667, he was elected a Fellow of Trinity College. He was appointed Lucasian professor of mathematics in 1669. He was also elected a Member of Parliament from Cambridge. He was first appointed Warden of the Mint in 1695 and later Master of the Mint in the Government of England. He became president of the Royal Society in 1703.
The practice of knowledge did not disrupt Newton’s religious pursuit. Gravity explains the motion of the planets, but it cannot explain who is positioning the planets as dynamic. God controls everything and knows everything that is happening or what is possible.
Newton’s scientific studies brought him tremendous respect. In 1705 he was awarded the title of Knights Bachelor. Most of the time of his life was spent in research.
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Optical science research
18 Trinity College elected Newton a Fellow, and two years later he was appointed Lucasian professor of mathematics. He had to become an Anglican missionary if he was to become a Fellow of Cambridge and Oxford Universities at the time. Again Lucasian professors were forbidden to have contact with the church, as it could harm scientific research. Newton wanted to free himself from this condition when he was a Lucasian professor. Then King Charles II accepted his demand. Then appointed him as a professor.
As a result, Newton was free from religious thought. Meanwhile, in 1668, Newton made a reflection telescope. In December 1671, Newton II built another telescope and presented it to the Royal Society. Two months later, as a Fellow of the Royal Society, he published his discoveries about light and thereby initiated a debate about light. This debate continued for many years. Newton, of course, always disliked such debates. Most of his research papers on optics were published by the Royal Society between 1672 and 1684 AD. These research papers were compiled in 1804 in his book Optics. These research papers were later compiled in 1804 in his book Optics.
Principia Mathematica published
Picture in the book Principia Mathematica Newton did not feel the urge to publish his research on gravitation before 1684 AD. Of these, Hooke, Edmund Haley, and Sir Christopher Wren discovered some theories or information about gravity in isolation, although none of them were able to provide a definite theory about the orbits of the planets.
That year, scientist Edmund Haley spoke to Newton about the subject. He was surprised to see that Newton had solved the problem so far. Newton gave Haley four theories. He also proposed seven problems which have been identified as the main part of his research work. Between 1685 and 1686 AD, for about seventeen or eighteen months, he wrote the most famous book, Philosophia Naturalis Principia Mathematica, which is called Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. This book has three parts. Newton wanted to shorten the third part. Later, Haley encouraged him to write the third part in detail. The Royal Society has failed to spend money to publish the book. This time too Haley came forward. He bore all the expenses for the publication of the book and as a result, this book was published in 1678 AD, an unforgettable book in the history of physics and mathematics. Following its release, it garnered a huge response throughout Europe.
Mechanics and gravity
In 1679 Newton returned to his own research on mechanics and especially gravity and its effects on the planets. In this case, he uses Kepler’s formula for planetary motion as a reference. He discussed this with Robert Hooke and John Farmstead. Why he published the results in “The Motu Corporam” (1684). The basic principles of the book Principia were outlined in this publication.
On July 5, 1687, he published his famous book, Philosophia Naturalis Principia Mathematica. The scientist Edmund Haley has been the one who contributed the most to the publication of this book through his courage and funding. In this book, Newton mentions three basic laws of motion in this book. Isaac Newton used the Latin word gravitas to express the force between objects. This word later became known as the gravitational force. We know that it is one of the fundamental forces of nature. Newton developed a theory on the subject known as Newton’s law of gravitation.
Newton and Leibniz developed a new branch of mathematics known as calculus at about the same time, according to modern mathematicians and historians. It was able to take a revolution in the history of mathematics and physics. However, there are many doubts and disputes about who is the real inventor of calculus. Scientist Steven Hawking, in his book A Brief History of Time, called Newton a liar and a liar. This leads to a heated debate. Which later became known as the Newton vs. Lebanese Calculus debate.
Newton discovered a common form of the binomial theorem which is one of his famous discoveries. This form is applicable to any power. Newton’s identity, Newton’s method, classified cubic curves. Otherwise, he was the first to use the Power Series with confidence and reverse it. Also discovered a new formula for pi.
From 1670 to 1672 Newton gave lectures on optics. At this time he discovered the refraction of light. He discovered this through prism testing. He noticed that when white light passed through a triangular prism was projected onto a screen, it dissolved into a luminous spectrum. Again, through a lens and a second prism, it is possible to convert this multicolored light into white light. He shows that even if a ray of color is separated from the colored light and thrown on different objects, its religion does not change. Isaac Newton sees that the color of light is always the same, whether it is reflected, scattered, or performed. So, the color we observe is the result of the interaction of the object with the incident colored light. And Objects can never form letters.
Newton’s Apple Story
There is a famous story about reading apples. Scientist Newton was sitting in an apple orchard. Suddenly an apple fell on his head. He wondered why the apple didn’t come this way, it came straight. Wondering why the apple came down? Why didn’t you go upstairs? He was then somewhat startled by his thinking, saying that there was a mode of proving that the earth had become a supernatural rotating form called gravity.
There is a famous story about Newton. He was first inspired to study the law of the universal gravitational ball when he fell an apple from a tree. The apple actually hit Newton in the head and that’s why the intelligence of gravity plays on his head. John Conduit, the husband of Newton’s nephew and his assistant at the Royal Mint, described Newton’s biography as follows:
Newton left Cambridge in 1666 and moved to Lincolnshire with his mother. One upon a time sitting in the garden he was deep in thought. At this time the force of gravity on his head (which brings an apple down from the tree to the ground) cannot be limited to a certain distance from the earth. This power, as is commonly thought, must have maintained its power for a long distance. He kept asking himself why this ball would not extend to the moon. At this case, it affects the speed of the moon and probably puts it in orbit. Based on this, he sat down to calculate what the consequences of this idea might be.
Newton told his biographer an incident about apples. In 1828. The biographer’s name is William Stockley. He wrote Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton’s Life. It was published in 1852. It felt hot after dinner, Stuckley writes. We went to the garden and sat under the apple tree and started drinking. “When I think of gravity, I think about reading apples,” he told me. I was wondering why it comes straight all the time.
As it turns out, Newton did not say to read the apple on his head. And one day an apple fell and Newton found the gravitational force – that’s not the case. Although the source of the phenomenon is Newton himself. Keith Moore, head of the Royal Society’s archives, said Newton revealed the Apple incident 50 years after the incident. It’s not that the incident didn’t happen at all, but the whole thing may not be true. I would rather love to think, he became a little naughty in old age.
Newton became engaged with Miss Story, but due to her studies and studies, he is not married. In the last 30 years of his life, Newton made very few fundamental contributions to mathematical principles. But there was no lack of enthusiasm and skill in this regard. In 1696 he solved a mathematical problem overnight. Bernoulli this problem was proposed in a competition. Then the time allotted for solving it was 6 months. Again in 1716, he solved a problem in just a few hours. Scientist Leibniz described the problem as thrilling and difficult for English experts. At the time he was quite concerned about some things. One of them is that some of his astronomical discoveries did not match the observations of the astronomer Royal. There was a debate about this. The other is the debate with the Lebanese over the invention of calculus. He revised the Principia text and published a new edition in 1713.
Honor & Awards
Newton was an honorable personality in the scientific world. He was the most popular scientist in the world. He got Knights Bachelor in 1705.
After 1725, Newton’s health declined drastically. He died on 25 March 1727 at the age of 85. Shortly before his death, he said:
Newton doesn’t know how he was presented to the world. He also told that I think of myself as a little boy who is just playing in the ocean valley and looking for a tiny pebble or a smaller and more common rock when the ocean of truth lies in front of him that remains undiscovered.
Newton’s formulas have taken human civilization to a new level. So Newton’s contribution to the history of science will always be memorable.