Nelson Mandela, South Africa's Liberator as Prisoner
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader. He was born on 18 July 1918 in the village of Mvezo in Umtata, then part of South Africa's Cape Province. Nelson Mandela's father, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa Mandela (1880–1928), was a local chief and councilor to the monarch, and his mother,s was Gadla's third wife.
- Name: Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela
- Birth: 18 July 1918
- Birth Place: Mvezo, Cape Province, South Africa
- Education: University of South Africa (1989)
- Death: 5 December 2013 (aged 95), Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa
He was the first democratically elected president of South Africa. He served as president from 1994 to 1999. Nelson studied law at Fort Hare University and the University of Witwatersrand and began his career as a lawyer in Johannesburg. There he became involved in anti-colonial activities and African nationalist politics and joined the African National Congress in 1943 and played an active role in establishing the Youth League in 1944. He actively participated in the anti-apartheid movement as the leader of the armed organization Umkhonto Wei Seiya. In 1962 he was arrested by the apartheid government of South Africa and sentenced to life imprisonment for various offenses, including violence. Mandela was jailed for 27 years. Most of his time he was on Robben Island. While in prison, his reputation throughout the world continued to grow. He became known worldwide as the most important black leader in South Africa.
He was released on February 11, 1990. He then participated in peace talks with the South African White Government on behalf of his party. This led to the end of racism in South Africa, and democracy was established in 1994 with the participation of people of all races. In South Africa, Mandela is known to his tribe as Madiba, which means "father of the nation".Mandela, a symbol of democracy and social justice, has won more than 250 awards. Notable among these are the Bharat Ratna Award given by the Government of India in 1990 and the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. He also jointly received the Sakharov Prize debut in 1988.
Mandela spent his childhood at his maternal grandmother's house. When Mandela was 9 years old, his father died of tuberculosis. The ruler Jongintaba was then appointed his guardian. Mandela attended a missionary school near the palace. At 16, Mandela was officially banished from his family. He then studied at the Clarkebury Boarding Institute. There, Mandela passed the Junior Certificate Examination in just 2 years instead of 3 years. In 1937, Mandela replaced his father on the Privy Council. He then attended Heldtown School, a missionary school in Fort Beaufort. This is where the students of the Thembu dynasty used to study. At the age of 19, Mandela began participating in sports such as racing and boxing. After graduating from school, Mandela enrolled in a Bachelor of Arts course at Fort Hare University. After graduating from school, Mandela enrolled in a Bachelor of Arts course at Fort Hare University. During his later life in prison, Mandela received a bachelor's degree in law under the Distance Education Program at the University of London.
At the end of his first year at the university, Mandela became involved in a call for student parliament against the university authorities. In the 1948 elections in South Africa, the African party won the National Party. This group believed in racism and favored the separation of different castes. In the wake of the National Party coming to power, Mandela became actively involved in politics. He led the 1952 non-cooperation movement of the African National Congress. He was instrumental in the 1955 People's Conference. The conference drafted a release document, which was the basis for the anti-apartheid movement in South Africa. During Mandela's political life, he was influenced by Mahatma Gandhi's philosophy. South African anti-apartheid activists opposed racism in the early part of the movement, adopting Gandhi's nonviolent policy. Mandela was also a leader of nonviolent movements from the very beginning. But on December 5, 1956, the apartheid white government of South Africa arrested 150 anti-apartheid activists, including Mandela, for sedition. The case lasted for a long period of 5 years (1956-1961), but at the end of the case, all the accused proved innocent.
In 1961, Mandela took the leadership of the ANC's armed organization, Umkhonto We Sizwe (meaning "country balm" nickname MK). He was the co-founder of the organization. He planned and coordinated violent and piracy attacks against the apartheid government and its army. Mandela also planned to go to the guerrilla warfare if needed by the apartheid government. In addition, Mandela began working abroad to raise money for MK and provide military training. Later in the eighties of the 20th century, MK began a guerrilla war against the apartheid government. It killed many civilians. Mandela later admitted that the ANC violated human rights many times in the fight against racism. Mandela was arrested on August 5, 1962, after having been with Ferrari for about 17 months. He was detained at the Johannesburg castle.
On October 25, 1962, Mandela was sentenced to five years in prison on the two charges. Two years later, on June 11, 1964, Mandela was charged and punished for leading the ANC's armed struggle. However, instead of being hanged on June 12, 1964, they were all sentenced to life imprisonment. Mandela's imprisonment begins at Robben Island Jail. Here he studied law at Fort Hare University and the University spent the first 18 years of his 27 years in prison. While in prison, his reputation throughout the world continued to grow. He became known worldwide as the most important black leader in South Africa.n 1988, Mandela was removed to Victor Verster Prison. Mandela was held captive until his release.
Mandela was released from Victor Verster Prison on February 11, 1990. The release of Mandela's imprisonment was broadcast live worldwide. In April 1993, Chris Haney, the leader of the African National Congress, was assassinated.
The killings raised the possibility of violence spreading across the country. In a speech addressed to the nation, Mandela requested peace. At that time, Mandela was not the President of South Africa. Nevertheless, Mandela said in the speech,
"Tonight I am approaching the black of every South African from the depths of my existence. A white man full of prejudice and hatred has come to our country to do such a thing so that our entire nation is now in disaster. A white woman of African descent risked her life so that we could know and present this killer to justice. Chris Hani's cold-blooded murder has sent shock waves across the country and around the world. Now is the time to stand up against all South Africans who stand together, from any end, the life that Chris Hani has given up - to "destroy" the liberty of us all. For the first time in the history of South Africa in 1994, general elections were held with the participation of people of all races, and Mandela became the first democratically elected president.
Mandela married three times. She has 6 children, 20 grandchildren, and many great-grandchildren. Mandela Mandela is the grandson of Nelson Mandela, a tribal leader of Thembu. Mandela's first wife was Evelyn Naoko. They were divorced in 1957 after 13 years of family life. Evelyn and Mandela have two sons (Madiba Thembekil (Thembi) (1946-1969) and Makgatho Mandela (1950-2005)) and two daughters (both are named Makaziwe Mandela, born 1947 and 1953). Mandela names the second daughter after the first daughter. All four of Mandela's children studied at the United World College in the Waterford Kamlava area. Mandela's eldest son, Thembi, died in a car accident in 1969 at the age of 25. During this time, Mandela was imprisoned. The South African government did not allow Mandela to attend his son's funeral. Makatath died of AIDS in 2005 at the age of 54.
Honor & Awards
Nelson Mandela has received rare awards and honors in his life. Among them are-
- Sakharov Prize in 1988;
- Bharat Ratna in 1990;
- Nishan-e-Pakistan in 1992;
- Nobel Peace Prize in 1993;
- Order of Lenin Presidential Medal of Freedom;
- Honorary citizenship of Rome, February 1983;
- Elected Honorary Life President of the National Union of Mineworkers of South Africa in 1986;
- International Peace and Freedom Award by the Workers International Centre, Stockholm Sweden 1986;
- First-person to receive the Freedom of the City of Sydney, Australia, 9 January 1987;
- Received Gleitsman Foundation International Activist Award, Johannesburg, 12 May 1993;
- Awarded honorary fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland in 1996;
- Indira Gandhi Award India, January 1996;
- Awarded an Honorary Doctorate in Law from University of Hong Kong, 21 March 2002;
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was posthumously inducted into the World Rugby Hall of Fame.
At the end of his life, Mandela was suffering from lung complications for a long time. On December 5, 2013, at the age of 95, he breathed his last on Thursday while undergoing treatment. After Mandela's death, US President Barack Obama says Nelson Mandela surpassed anything that could be achieved in the life of a man, sacrificing his own freedom for the freedom of others.
" We have lost the most influential, most courageous and most people in the world with whom we are spending time. The sheer dignity and sheer zeal of sacrificing her freedom for the freedom of all people have not only changed South Africa, has brought us all forward. "