Mahatma Gandhi Biography
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Mahatma Gandhi) is one of the leading politicians among Indians, one of the pioneers of India's independence movement and an influential spiritual leader. He was born in 1869 in the Hindu Modh family of Porbandar. His father, Karamchand Gandhi, was a Dewan (Chief Minister) of Porbandar. Mother Putliba was Karamchand's fourth wife.
- Name: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.
- Birth: 2 October 1869.
- Birth Place: Porbandar, British India (present-day Gujarat, India).
- Education: University College London.
- Death: 30 January 1948 (aged 78),New Delhi, Delhi,India.
He was the founder of the Satyagraha Movement. Thereby public disobedience was declared against dictatorship. This movement was founded on nonviolent doctrine and philosophy and was one of the driving forces of the Indian independence movement, the inspiration for the movement of people's freedom and rights all over the world. Gandhi is known in India and around the world as Mahatma or Great Spirit and Bapu or Baba.
India has officially declared him the father of the nation of India in his honor. On October 2, his birthday was celebrated in India as a national holiday, in honor of Gandhi Jayanti. June 2, 2007, at the UN General Assembly, to declare October 2nd as International Non-Violence Day. All UN member states agree to observe the day. As an educated British lawyer, Gandhi first applied the ideology of his non-violent peaceful civil movement to the rights of citizens of oppressed Indian communities in South Africa. Upon returning to India, a number of distressed peasants and day laborers, along with the discriminatory taxation system and the widespread discrimination, formed a movement. After the leadership of the Indian National Congress, Gandhi started campaigning on various issues including poverty alleviation, women's freedom, establishing brotherhood among different ethnicities, eliminating caste discrimination, the economic prosperity of the nation. But all of this was aimed at liberating India from foreign rule.
In 1930, Gandhi led a 400-kilometer long Dundee salt march in protest against the salt tax of Indians, which triggered a direct India quit movement in 1942 against the English rulers. He was imprisoned in South Africa and India several times for various reasons. Mahatma Gandhi, in all circumstances, has remained firm on non-violent doctrine and truth. He lived a simple life and established a monastery that was self-sufficient. He wore a traditional Indian dhoti and shawl that he wore to himself. He eats simple vegetarian food. In the last life, fruits ate more. Fasting for a long time due to self-restraint and protest.
Mahatma Gandhi spent his childhood in Porbandar. Mahatma Gandhi was a moderate student during his childhood in Porbandar and Rajkot. Somehow he passed the Matriculation Examination from Samaldas College in Bhavnagar, Gujarat. He was also not happy in college because his family wanted him to be a lawyer. At the age of 18, on September 4, 1888, he went to University College London to study barrister. Her life in the royal capital, London, was influenced by her mother's vow to stay in India.
He swore to his mother in front of the Jain monk Becharji that he would follow the Hindu moral advice of renouncing meat, alcohol, and vandalism. Although he experimented with English manners, Such as dance lessons, he does not eat lamb and cabbage provided by his landlord. He regularly visited one of London's few vegetarian food shops. Instead of living a simple vegetarian life in his mother's words, he studied the subject and took a vegetarian diet. Joined the Vegetarian Association "and was elected a member of the Working Committee, a local branch of this organization.
Early in his career, Gandhi traveled to South Africa as a lawyer for Dada Abdullah & Sons as part of the South African People's Rights Movement. South Africa dramatically changed Gandhi's life. Here he was generally discriminated against by Indians and blacks. Indians did not have voting rights in South Africa. He stayed in the country for some more time to raise the bill to collect this right. Though the purpose of the Bill was not to be fulfilled, the movement made Indians of the country aware of their rights. In 1894, Gandhi established the Natal Indian Congress. On returning to India after a brief visit to India in January 1987, a white mob tried to kill him. Gandhi did not make any allegations against these Mob members. In 1906, the Transvaal Government passed a law forcing the registration of Indians in the colony. In a mass protest in Johannesburg on September 11, Gandhi urged all to boycott the law. This plan worked, and a 7-year-old movement began. During this time many Indians were taken captive for various reasons including disobeying the law, burning their registration cards. Many were injured or killed.
But due to such patronizing action on the peaceable Indians, protests started from the common people of South Africa. Essentially, South African general Ian Christian Smut forced to negotiate with Gandhi. It was through this that Gandhi's ideology was established, that Satyagraha began to regain its original form. As part of India's independence movement
He spoke at the meeting of the Indian National Congress, but he was introduced to Indian issue politics and the Indian people through Gopal Krishna Gokhale, who was then a respected Congress leader. On January 9, 1915, Gandhi returned to India. That is why that day is celebrated as the Diaspora Indian Day. Gandhi's first achievement came through the Champaran demonstration of 1918 and the Satya Satyagraha. Later he established a monastery in his village. Gathering his longtime supporters and local volunteers. After being loyal to the villagers, he cleaned up the village as well as the school and he established a hospital and called upon the leading people of the village to be free from social oppression and prejudice. But his main effect was seen when he was arrested on charges of destabilizing and ordered to leave the province.
Thousands gathered outside the jail to protest. They also came to the police station and the court to demand Gandhi's release, which the court had to quietly accept. Gandhi's weapon against injustice was non-cooperation and peaceful resistance. In December 1921, Mahatma Gandhi became executive officer of the Indian National Congress. "Non-cooperation" has gained huge popularity and success. Gandhi was arrested on March 10, 1922, and sentenced to six years in prison for crimes against the state. He was released in February 1924 following an operation of appendicitis.
Gandhi remained silent for most of the 1920s, but in 1928 he came forward. For this purpose, in March 1930, he organized a salt walk for Dundee and traveled 400 km from Allahabad to Dundee from March 23 to April 6 to make salt in his hand. The British arrested 60,000 people for revenge.
In March 1941, the government agreed to release all the prisoners in exchange for ending all non-cooperation movements. In the summer of that year, three unsuccessful attempts were made to assassinate him. Gandhi dedicated his life to the greater purpose of searching for the truth. He achieved it by learning from his mistakes, and by examining himself.
In 1883, at the age of just 13, Mahatma Gandhi married Kasturba Makhanji (also known as Kasturubai) at the behest of his parents. They have four sons born to Harilal Gandhi born in 1888, Manilal Gandhi born in 1892, Ramdas Gandhi born in 1897 and Devdas Gandhi born in 1900.
Honor & Awards
International Gandhi Peace Prize is an annual international award-nominated by Mahatma Gandhi, given by the Government of India. On the occasion of the 125th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi in 1995, the Government of India introduced the award to honor Gandhi's ideology.
Gandhi was shot dead on January 30, 1948. At that time, he was holding a night rally in the Birla Bhawan (Birla House) in New Delhi. His killer, Nathuram Godse, was a Hindu fundamentalist with whom the extremist Hindu Mahasabha came in contact. According to Gandhi's wishes, his body was drowned in several major rivers such as the Nile, the Volga, the Thames.